Adam Clarke Commentary. This strategy is that women of the Roman house churches are named and endorsed as leaders. It is in and through Christ that God is manifested to the world as the only wise God for he is the wisdom of God, and the power of God. They were his fellow-prisoners. And we may observe. They were Paul's cousins, akin to him so was Herodion, Romans 16:11. The (Jewish) Root Supports You through Your Faith Alone. Amen. It was wrapped up in silence from eternity so some--a temporibus æ ternis it is no new and upstart notion, no late invention, but took rise from the days of eternity and the purposes of God's everlasting love. 15 Salute Philologus, and Julia, Nereus, and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints which are with them. (18-32) Commentary on Romans 1:1-7 (Read Romans 1:1-7) (1-7) Prays for the saints at Rome, and expresses his desire to see them. THE CONTEXT Paul begins his letter to the Romans with a salutation (1:1-7) and a prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15). (1.) 2 That ye receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you: for she hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also.. 3 Greet Priscilla and Aquila my helpers in Christ Jesus: When Joshua had conquered the kings of Canaan, he called the captains of Israel to set their feet upon the necks of those kings (Joshua 10:24), so will Christ, our Joshua, enable all his faithful servants and soldiers to set their feet upon Satan's neck, to trample upon, and triumph over, their spiritual enemies. In verse 2 Paul uses a rare Greek word, prostatis, which means ‘patroness.’ In the last part of this verse Paul asks the Roman audience of the letter to help Phoebe with what she needs in Rome, “for she has been a patroness of many, even of me.”. Cranfield refuses to make a final decision, but notes that the reference to “belly” used to be taken to refer to Jesus-followers who were committed to Jewish food laws, but seems to side more with the idea that it might be the Gentile “strong” of Romans 14:1—15:6 who despised the “weak” for their Jewish-influenced diet.27 A diet-related warning is also found in the conclusion of Hebrews, and thus is probably authentic to the end of the letter here (Heb. 1. Hey! His wisdom (Romans 16:27): To God only wise. The wisdom of the serpent becomes Christians, but not the subtlety of the old serpent. The Application to the Gentiles and All Men (2:14-16) E. Exposition Proper Romans 2:1-16 is a powerful passage about the nature of … Some others that were of note among the Christians (Romans 16:23): Gaius my host. It is some base lust or other that they are pleasing pride, ambition, covetousness, luxury, lasciviousness, these are the designs which they are really carrying on. These greetings have a two-part emphasis. This letter, written before the gospels, is well ahead of the gospel authors who used “in memory of her” simultaneously to commemorate and render anonymous the woman who anointed Jesus (Matt. (2) Read more about Aquila and Prisca in Acts 18:1-4; Acts 18:24-28 and 1 Corinthians 16:19. Ibid., 258-63. Satan tempting and troubling, acting as a deceiver and as a destroyer, the God of peace will bruise under our feet. Amen. Tip: to find an exact phrase or title, enclose it in quotation marks. He is to everlasting, intimating the eternal continuance to us. Observe, Paul bespeaks help for one that had been so helpful to many he that watereth shall be watered also himself. rom 16:0. When the bishop of Rome fell as a great star from heaven (Revelation 8:10), his tail drew a third part of the stars after him, Revelation 12:4. CHAPTER 16 Romans 16:1-27. We will list four … It was an honour to Tertius that he had a hand, though but as a scribe, in writing this epistle. It should seem that she was a person of quality and estate, who had business which called her to Rome, where she was a stranger and therefore Paul recommends her to the acquaintance of the Christians there: an expression of his true friendship to her. Observe, They corrupt their heads by deceiving their hearts, pervert their judgments by slyly insinuating themselves into their affections. To be simple concerning evil--so wise as not to be deceived, and yet so simple as not to be deceivers. A. Greetings to many different Christians. ... Romans 16:25 "Now to Him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret … CONCLUSION, EMBRACING SUNDRY SALUTATIONS AND DIRECTIONS, AND A CLOSING PRAYER. Now Christ appears to have been the treasure hid in the field of the Old Testament. I commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is a servant of the church in Cenchrea, that you may receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the saints, and assist her in whatever business she has need of you; for indeed she has been a helper of many and of myself also. Concerning Aquila and Priscilla, a famous couple, that Paul had a special kindness for. T. W. Manson went so far as to suggest that Paul’s original letter ended at chapter 15, and that what we call chapter 16 was added to a copy of the Roman letter and sent to Ephesus.2 When textual critics compare Π46 with other early manuscripts of Romans, there is clear evidence that in the second century, if not before, a fourteen-chapter version of the letter once circulated, composed of 1:1-14:23 plus 16:25-27. 1. It was much to her honour that Paul left this upon record for wherever this epistle is read her kindness to Paul is told for a memorial of her. That worked for almost two millennia, but after the world allowed the execution of six million Jews in the twentieth century, it is more difficult to avoid the recurrent theme in Romans that God is faithful to Israel even while the ethnē seem to outnumber Israel in following her messiah. He adds, in the close, a general salutation to them all, in the name of the churches of Christ (Romans 16:16): "The churches of Christ salute you that is, the churches which I am with, and which I am accustomed to visit personally, as knit together in the bonds of the common Christianity, desire me to testify their affection to you and good wishes for you." Dec 24, 2006. Probably they used to meet at her house, and she undertook the care of entertaining the ministers, especially strangers. Gifts of Stock, Mutual Funds, and Retirement Accounts, CBE International’s Favorite Books of 2020, The Biblical Basis for Women’s Service in the Church, Sign Up to Get CBE’s Academic Journal Online, Ibid., 33-35; T. W. Manson, “St. Paul’s Letter to the Romans—and Others,” in. Romans chapter 16 KJV (King James Version) 1 I commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a servant of the church which is at Cenchrea:. 8 Greet Amplias my beloved in the Lord. The benediction at 13:20 certainly captures the scriptural theme of God’s representative treading on the serpent (Gen. 3:15; Ps. Some take them for a man and his wife, and the original will well enough bear it and, considering the name of the latter, this is more probable than that they should be two men, as others think, and brethren. The Old Testament does not only borrow light from, but return light to, the revelation of the New Testament. Dec 24, 2006. His estate, and honour, and employment, did not take him off from attending on Paul and laying out himself for the good of the church, it should seem, in the work of the ministry for he is joined with Timothy (Acts 19:22), and is mentioned 2 Timothy 4:20. The caution itself, which is given in the most obliging manner that could be: I beseech you, brethren. Second, there are greetings to Paul’s acquaintances within the Roman house churches. He was one of a thousand for integrity and holiness.--And his mother and mine, his mother by nature and mine by Christian love and spiritual affection as he calls Phebe his sister, and teaches Timothy to treat the elder women as mothers, 1 Timothy 5:2. He gives a very good character of her. Observe. Lest any should object, "Why was this mystery kept secret so long, and why made manifest now?" A truly godly man will be careful to take religion along with him wherever he goes. This leads some textual critics to conclude that Π. had an antecedent that ended at chapter 15, since the final benediction was shifted to the end of that chapter. 22 I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord. Romans 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ The reason why he was so ready and willing to preach it, even where he ran the greatest risk of his character and life, was, because it was "the Gospel of Christ" he preached, and he was not ashamed of it. There is something observable in several of these salutations. The oldest surviving manuscript of Romans, Chester Beatty Papyrus II, also known as Π, , dating from the early third century, places the benediction of 16:25-27 between 15:33 and chapter 16. Adam Clarke Commentary. Some think he especially warns them to take heed of the judaizing teachers, who, under convert of the Christian name, kept up the Mosaical ceremonies, and preached the necessity of them, who were industrious in all places to draw disciples after them, and whom Paul in most of his epistles cautions the churches to take heed of. Our redemption and salvation by Jesus Christ, in the foundation, method, and fruits of it, are, without controversy, a great mystery of godliness, 1 Timothy 3:16. Chapter 16. But this passage is not a dry list of names. You can’t remember their name. It is appropriate now to complete Wright’s quotation, since I only offered the first part of it at the beginning of this essay: “I used to think Romans 16 was the most boring chapter in the letter, and now, as I study and reflect on the names it includes, I am struck by how powerfully they illustrate how the teachings of both Jesus and Paul were being worked out in practice.”, The warning in 16:17-20 appears to some as an abrupt change from the preceding greetings, but with the majority of commentators, it is probably right to view this as integral to the letter and not a later insertion. Courtesy and Christianity agree well together. [2.] And, [2.] He concludes with a solemn celebration of the glory of God, Romans 16:25-27. Both Christ and his apostles had some of their best friends among the devout (and upon that account honourable) women. 20 And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. with other early manuscripts of Romans, there is clear evidence that in the second century, if not before, a fourteen-chapter version of the letter once circulated, composed of 1:1-14:23 plus 16:25-27. Paul made use of a scribe, not out of state nor idleness, but because he wrote a bad hand, which was not very legible, which he excuses, when he writes to the Galatians with his own hand (Galatians 6:11): pelikois grammasi--with what kind of letters. Week 16 - chapter 16. This was not a passionate kiss, but a friendly kiss. Illustrations of this need in baptism, in visiting the women’s part of a house, in introducing women to the deacon or bishop, may be found in the Apostolical Constitutions.7 In the volume that replaced this commentary for the International Critical Commentary series, Cranfield proves to be more open to Phoebe’s status as holder of a definite office: It is very much more natural…to understand it as referring to a definite office. In thanking God, we fasten upon his favours to us in praising and adoring God, we fasten upon his perfections in himself. Paul wants to have a word with this “moral person” before he moves on to speak to the Jew… Twenty-nine people are mentioned in Romans 16:1-16, with twenty-eight based in Rome. a) In a sense, that is what I want you to get out of Chapter 16. Yet a little while, and he that shall come will come. Romans chapter 1 KJV (King James Version) 1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,. Paul explained that God does not show favorites and He loves all people equally. 6:21-22; Col. 4:7-9). Paul mentions this, to engage the Christians at Rome to be the more kind to Aquila and Priscilla. One that was Paul's amanuensis (Romans 16:22): I Tertius, who wrote this epistle. Paul here. Even the disciples of Christ themselves, before his resurrection and ascension, were very much in the dark about the mystery of redemption, and their notion of it was very much clouded and confused such a secret was it for many ages. Therefore it — The blessing; is of faith, that it might be by grace — That it might appear to flow from the free love of God; that God might magnify the riches of his grace, in proposing justification and eternal life to us, in a way that might, in multitudes of instances, be effectual. But in Paul’s greetings here in Romans 16, we see that there was another pair of apostles who were active in Roman church life before the more famous pair of martyrs, Peter and Paul, arrived. • Verses 16-17 (the first part of the lectionary The “leveling of names” was due to upwardly mobile freedmen/women who gained wealth and sought noble names and the low fertility rates and economic stagnation of the nobility. Where the law of love is in the heart the law of kindness will be in the tongue. This chapter helps us see that the letter is intended for women and men, slaves and free, Jews and ethnē (nations), indeed all who are following Jesus in the politically repressive shadow of the empire. Slaves, freedmen/women in the Roman house churches, Since the “leveling of names” occurred later in the imperial period than in the mid-first-century when Paul wrote this letter, we are able still to make some class distinctions on the basis of names with a considerable degree of probability for the letter written to the Romans.12, The term ‘servile’ designates either a slave or a freedman/woman. Ibid., 284-90, responding to Michael H. Burer and Daniel B. Wallace, “Was Junia Really an Apostle? 12 Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord. Paul was in a great deal of danger at Corinth, while he sojourned with them but they sheltered him, though they thereby made themselves obnoxious to the enraged multitudes, Acts 18:12,17. We preach not ourselves, says Paul, but Christ Jesus the Lord. (2.) Others think that the church was no more than a religious, pious, well-governed family, that kept up the worship of God. Greet them that be of the household of Narcissus, which are in the Lord. To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use the convenient, Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary on the Bible. Chapter 16 in Paul’s Letter to the Romans. (2.) 1. Be ye therefore wise as serpents (Matthew 10:16), wise to discern that which is really good and that which is counterfeit wise to distinguish things that differ, to improve opportunities. 9 Salute Urbane, our helper in Christ, and Stachys my beloved. Before the foundation of the world was laid, the mystery was hid in God, Ephesians 3:9. There is need of a piercing watchful eye to discern the danger we are in from such people for commonly the pretences are plausible, when the projects are very pernicious. Among English translations, from Tyndale to near the end of the nineteenth century, the name was usually translated as though it were the woman’s name, Junia. (1-7) Prays for the saints at Rome, and expresses his desire to see them. Paul’s commendation of Phoebe functions as a signal to the Roman house churches that he supports the women leaders there. She knew God’s Word and she was able to deal with these kinds of doctrinal matters. 1. Phoebe's position in Romans 16:1 as a reference to a specific office in the church without question. The everlasting God. That is a wisely simple man that knows not how to do any thing against the truth. Of Epenetus it is further said that he was the first-fruit of Achaia unto Christ not only one of the most eminent believers in that country, but one of the first that was converted to the faith of Christ: one that was offered up to God by Paul, as the first-fruits of his ministry there an earnest of a great harvest for in Corinth, the chief city of Achaia, God had much people, Acts 18:10. Assist her in whatsoever business she has need of you. It has been the common policy of seducers to set upon those who are softened by convictions, and begin to enquire what they shall do, because such do most easily receive the impressions of their opinions. Epp makes use of the following two articles: Richard S. Cervin, “A Note regarding the Name ‘Junia(s)’ in Romans 16.7,”. The parallels drawn between this warning and those in Philippians 3:2-21 and Galatians 6:11-15 make it appear likely that Paul could easily enter a warning mode when concluding his letters.25 Cranfield even argues that these verses are not so abrupt, since the greetings are completely concluded in 16:16 and greetings from Paul’s logistics/secretarial team begin at 16:21.26. Who were these people that Paul warned the Romans to avoid? Romans 16:16 NIV. The apostle commends to the Christians at Rome Phoebe, a deaconess of the Church at Cenchrea, Rom 16:1, Rom 16:2.Sends greetings to Aquila and Priscilla, of whom he gives a high character; and greets also the Church at their house, Rom 16:3-5.Mentions several others by name, both men and women, who were members of the Church of Christ at Rome, Rom 16:6-16. When Satan seems to have prevailed, and we are ready to give up all for lost, then will the God of peace cut the work short in righteousness. The other names marked by “east” probably came from the east, according to Lampe. I am glad therefore on your behalf: but yet I would have you wise unto that which is good, and simple concerning evil. Hard evidence for the feminization of Paul’s ministry strategy comes first from his commendation of Phoebe. Rom. Ibid., 170. 16 - Same mind Having a spirit of cooperation even when personal opinions differ; be the mind of Christ. The apostle commends to the Christians at Rome Phoebe, a deaconess of the Church at Cenchrea, 1,2.Sends greetings to Aquila and Priscilla, of whom he gives a high character; and greets also the Church at their house, 3-5.Mentions several others by name, both men and women, who were members of the Church of Christ at Rome, 6-16.Warns them to beware of those who cause … Figure 1, “Translations diakonon and prostatis in Romans 16:1-2,” provides a survey of how these words have been translated. I refer to Revelation 10:11, which this explains. "You think yourselves a very happy people, and so do I too: but for all that you must not be secure: I would have you wise unto that which is good, and simple concerning evil. Concerning Epenetus, Romans 16:5. 1. Jason and Sōsipatros seem to be identified as Jews here. Ministers are the ambassadors, and the gospel is their embassy. Paul does not pretend to have the monopoly of this discovery, as if he alone knew it no, it is made manifest to many others. (16,17) The sins of the Gentiles set forth. I. Jesus Christ in the Book of Romans A Final Prayer. To this therefore he subjoins the benediction, The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you--the good-will of Christ towards you, the good work of Christ in you. For example, see Origen, Commentary on Romans, 10.17. Paul was as well skilled in the art of obliging as most men. Salute one another with a holy kiss — “The Jews considered the kiss as an expression of friendship. Since our focus here is on Romans 16 as we encounter it in our Bibles, I will treat it as part of the chapter and ask how well it summarizes the letter. 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